Unlike the distribution grid (subject of CCBJ's next edition; part 2 of The Future of the Grid), the high-voltage transmission grid has used advanced technology for decades. Transmission grid operators monitor voltages, currents and power continuously in sophisticated control centers. But the transmission grid could still benefit from, and will increasingly need, more advanced technology for greater visibility, flexibility and control—technology like synchrophasors which are the subjects of widespread trials and pilot projects. But mostly what the transmission grid needs is growth and expansion to integrate new, remote sources of renewable energy and to keep up with changes in the conventional generation mix. As explored in depth in this edition, investment in transmission is expected to be between $12 billion and $16 bilion annually through 2016, with $1 to $1.2 billion in annual revenues for consulting and engineering firms (excluding construction).